February Revolution 1917 (start of Russian revolution) The failure of the Duma (Russian parliament) Opposition of the communists Russian failures in the first world war. Russia had been fighting since 1914 and suffered worst casualties and debt. Tzar in Russia means king. Nicholas II was in power. Russo Japanese War (1904) defeat let to political instability. He believed he was absolute ruler.
The Russian revolution emerged out of a similar scenario. There was widespread famine and poverty across Russia. Bloody Sunday in 1905, a demonstration marched towards the Winter Palace, was orchestrated by peasants, similarly another bottom-up case.